Missing cosmic sources elude astrophysicists

The universe is bright but are they in the Dark?

Using computer simulations, researchers at the Carnegie Institution for Science have determined that in the intergalactic medium (IGM)—the space between galaxies—there is actually more light being emitted than there should be by a factor of 400%.1

The light observed coming from the ionized hydrogen atoms in the IGM is five times more than there should be.

Simulations of the early big bang universe agree with the amount of light generated by sources observed at those epochs, but they widely disagree with the universe we observe much closer to home, in the low-redshift universe, meaning much more recent in its alleged history.

Quasar light missing

Figure: An artist’s impression of a quasar. There’s just not enough of them to account for interstellar light, say researchers. Credit: NASA/ESA See Ref. 1.

Cosmologists have this problem because they assume that along with active star-forming galaxies, quasars—extremely active galaxy-sized objects, which emit a lot of radiation and often have large redshifts—are the main sources to have photo-ionized the IGM. This is because they assume that having large redshifts means that they are predominantly the occupants of the early universe, from which all normal galaxies that we see at low redshifts ultimately are supposed to have evolved. It is this initial big bang model assumption which brings them unstuck.

The logic goes like this: Quasars, and to a much lesser extent star-forming galaxies, emitted most of the radiation into the intergalactic medium in the early universe, particularly the UV light used as an indicator of the sources, which ionize the neutral hydrogen. The ionized hydrogen emits radiation at characteristic wavelengths—especially at the Hα wavelength of 656.281 nm, which is visible red light. So this is the easiest way for astronomers to detect the ionized hydrogen content of gas clouds in the IGM.

Neutral hydrogen molecules are very difficult to see as they do not emit much of anything.2

Only if they are dissociated into single hydrogen atoms can astronomers detect the characteristic 21cm line at microwave frequencies. But if they are ionized they emit at the characteristic optical wavelengths that atomic physics tells us they should. Depending on the redshift of the hydrogen absorbers, this line is shifted accordingly. Nevertheless it is well understood (so it is believed) and easily identified.

So one study carried out a survey of the low-redshift (i.e. nearby) universe. They added up all the visible hydrogen emission in the intergalactic medium, then compared that with simulations, based on what would be expected in a big bang ΛCDM universe,3 making the usual assumptions on Dark Matter and Dark Energy content etc. See also Claimed dark matter ‘find’ won’t help end ‘big bang’ crisis.

The model fits the high-redshift observational data of the cosmic ultra-violet background (UVB) but is seriously in error with the low-redshift UVB. The problem they encountered is described by Carnegie’s Juna Kollmeier, lead author of the study, in a letter in The Astrophysical Journal4 titled ‘The Photon Underproduction Crisis’, in which she said:

“It’s as if you’re in a big, brightly lit room, but you look around and see only a few 40-watt light bulbs….Where is all that light coming from? It’s missing from our census.”1

They are really talking about the value of their so-called state-of-the-art models to describe the production and evolution of the UVB light generated from distant sources, which photo-ionizes hydrogen in the intergalactic medium, and the comparison with recent observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). In their paper, they admit that one possibility to resolve this is that their

 “…theoretical understanding of the low-redshift universe is in need of substantial revision.”4

So to solve this, what do some suggest? Dark matter! Dark matter particles which we can’t see provide the extra source of radiation that ionizes the IGM. One of the authors of the study said,5

“You know it’s a crisis when you start seriously talking about decaying dark matter.” (emphasis added)

And another, David Weinberg, said,4

“The great thing about a 400 per cent discrepancy is that you know something is really wrong.” (emphasis added)

That is self-evident. But would any of them consider that maybe they have started with the wrong foundation? Instead, leading astrophysicists speculate that the missing photons that ionize the IGM could be coming from an “exotic new source”.1 They would rather invent some new physics or invoke invisible decaying Dark Matter to solve their dark source problem. I suggest it is they who are totally left in the dark.


We observe a local (low-redshift) universe that is five times brighter than it should be according to conventional big bang ΛCDM model wisdom. Yes, it is a research problem. I have nothing against that, but it is now a new irony that what is missing is not something tangible but the ‘darkness’ itself, because the universe in between the galaxies is too bright. That is, it should be darker; so where is that ‘darkness’?

Instead of considering dumping the problematic model, and going back to the drawing board, or consulting the revelation of the One Who knows, they propose decaying Dark Matter to be the missing source that causes the intergalactic medium to be so illuminated. The tapestry was flawed long ago—it only grows worse with time. The universe is bright but the world is all in the ‘Dark’.


  1. Where has all the light in the universe gone? www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/10955749/Where-has-all-the-light-in-the-universe-gone.html
  2. For this reason the cosmologists speak of the Dark Ages in alleged cosmic history. See Hartnett, J.G., Inflation—all in the ‘Dark’.
  3. Λ represents the cosmological constant, nowadays meaning Dark Energy, and CDM represents Cold Dark Matter. Both of these are necessary fudge factors needed in the standard model.
  4. Kollmeier, J. A. et al., The Photon Underproduction Crisis, ApJ 789(2): L32, 2014; available at arxiv.org/pdf/1404.2933v1.pdf
  5. Franco, M., Universe’s missing photon sources baffle scientists, http://www.cnet.com/au/news/universes-missing-photons-baffle-scientists/

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Further Reading

The lecture: 8 reasons why evolution is foolish


8 reasons are presented that make evolution an impossible idea. The term evolution is used in the general sense applying to the universe beginning at the big bang, and including cosmic evolution of stars and galaxies, the solar system and Earth, and the origin of life and biological evolution.

The questions are taken from the cosmos, from geology of the planet Earth and from biology. The reasons that make evolution foolish as a viable scientific theory are posed as the lack of any reasonable answer to 8 questions:

Where did the Universe come from?
How did nothing explode?
How did stars and galaxies form?
How come all rocks dated with Carbon-14 give ‘absolute ages’ less than 56,000 yrs?
How do you determine the absolute age of a fossil?
Why hasn’t evolution been observed?
How does specific complex coded information in DNA arise by chance?
How did life arise from non-living chemicals by random chance?

See my article 8 REASONS WHY EVOLUTION IS FOOLISH.  Note the questions and my answers also at the end of the web article. You can find a pdf tract of the same title in English or other languages under Downloads on the front page.

This is a lecture delivered at the University of Adelaide on June 6th, 2014. I presented the lecture to an audience of about 55 and spoke on the topic for about 60 minutes presenting my 8 reasons via 8 questions which, so far, have not been answered by evolutionists. Following the lecture we had about 40 minutes of Q&A. The lecture was attended by an atheist group who attempted to catch me with ‘straw men’ and misdirected questions, see: ATHEISTS TURN OUT TO STRIKE AGAINST CREATIONISM AND THE SUPERNATURAL.

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From a saved Christian to disciple of Christ–my testimony Part II

Late in 1973 I finished my B.Sc. honours degree in physics at the University of Western Australia. After that I was not so sure what I should do. However, that summer (Nov-Dec 1973) I visited my Catholic girlfriend out in the country (which Australians call the Outback) on an aboriginal mission where she was working. I think she could not fully comprehend what was going on in my mind, though she was happy I was no longer an atheist but had become a Catholic. (We were engaged to be married when her service ended.) I grew to understand later that her service to God was some religious duty instilled in her by Catholic parents and the Roman Catholic Church, and not as a result of a new heart from a ‘rebirth in Christ’.

At that time, while working out there, I met a Christian guy who told me about David Wilkerson and his work amongst the New York gangs and drug addicts, where many were miraculously delivered from drug addiction and violence through Christ. David Wilkerson was (now gone on to be with the Lord) a born-again Christian pastor who trusted God for miracles to change the lives of many young people on drugs through the miraculous power of the Holy Spirit. Continue reading

A parable for the compromised church

Jesus was speaking to his disciples when He said,

46 And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say? 47 Whosoever cometh to me, and heareth my sayings, and doeth them, I will shew you to whom he is like: 48 He is like a man which built an house, and digged deep, and laid the foundation on a rock: and when the flood arose, the stream beat vehemently upon that house, and could not shake it: for it was founded upon a rock. 49 But he that heareth, and doeth not, is like a man that without a foundation built an house upon the earth; against which the stream did beat vehemently, and immediately it fell; and the ruin of that house was great.   Luke 6:46-49

I was reading these verses a few days ago and something struck me about this. It reminded me of the state of the Christian church today.

death church

Frequently, I read, hear and witness first hand disbelief in the Words of God, in the very places that are supposed to uphold them, the so-called Christian church. But so many of the protestant churches are compromised. They compromise on the Words of God, the very Words He gave us.

Jesus questions. Why call Him Lord and not do what He says? Why say you believe but in practice you don’t? Continue reading

Is there definitive evidence for an expanding universe?

Evolution out of the ‘Dark Ages’

Expansion of the universe is fundamental to the big bang cosmology. No expansion means no big bang. By projecting cosmological expansion backwards in time, they assert, one will, hypothetically, come to a time where all points are the same. Since these points are all there is, then it logically follows that there is no space or time ‘before’ this moment. It is the singularity, and we cannot use language couched in concepts of time when no time (or space) exists.

Yet there are Christians who use this presumed fact as evidence in support of the Genesis 1 account and even for the existence of God Himself. They argue that only God could have started the big bang. Though it is true the universe does need a first cause it is an enormous leap into the unknown to suppose that the big bang story is that which is described in the Genesis 1 narrative. The sequence of events is nothing like it. See The big bang is not a Reason to Believe!


Redshifted The spectral lines for this element still show the same distinctive pattern, but all have been shifted towards the red end of the spectrum.

At the end of the 1920s, Edwin Hubble made a significant discovery. He found a proportionality between the amount by which the spectral lines in the light coming from relatively nearby galaxies are redshifted(z) and their distances (r) from Earth. That relationship is now called the Hubble law c z = H0 r, where c is the speed of light and H0 is Hubble’s famous constant of proportionality.

The Hubble law has since been extended to very great redshifts (therefore by inference, distances) in the cosmos, via the redshift-distance relationship. At small redshifts, and by interpretation at small distances, this becomes precisely the Hubble law.

Redshifts have been interpreted as a velocity of recession, i.e. that galaxies are moving through space. And that the recession implies expansion of the universe. But Hubble, up to the time of his death, was not so convinced of this interpretation.  He was open to the possibility that there could be another mechanism to explain redshifts. Continue reading

Christian Palestinianism: Replacement theology of the One World religion

Paul Wilkerson, at the 2011 The Berean Call Conference, exposes the diabolical ecumenical re-writing of God’s promise to His chosen people the Jews. It seems to be led by the Roman Catholics, with so-called evangelical Christians in bed with Islamic terrorists. Endorsed by Brian McLaren, the apostate from the New Apostolic Reformation (NAR) (which teaches a political church on Earth). The agenda is one world, anti-Christ, Roman Catholic, anti-Semitic, socialist, communist, Islamist, devilish.

But the Lord says,

Thus saith the LORD, which giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; The LORD of hosts is his name:  If those ordinances depart from before me, saith the LORD, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before me for ever.  Jeremiah 31:35,36

The sun, the moon and the stars will fail before God disinherits Israel.

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The Lord will overcome


The rise of Islam in the West

I see this as the Lord’s doing, the same way He sent the Babylonians to carry away Israel into captivity (Jeremiah 29:1-14) or the way He used the Assyrians (Isaiah 10:5)  to chastise Israel for her sins. This time the chastisement is to the Christian Church (spiritually Israel) and again to the chosen people, the Jews, wherever they may be. I believe the Lord  Jesus will come again and restore His assembly of believers, whether they be Jews or Gentiles. And the Lord will Himself judge those who disobey His laws and murder innocent people. Continue reading